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  1. #1
    Sersan Dua
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    BUSI BAGUS MENURUT ANDA

    gw udah nyba denso iridium,tipe nya IK20..enak bgt lho..gap nya gw kasi 0,8.rekomen bgt..oia,gw pake di vios..

    kalo modcomers gmana?

    www.sparkplugs.com
    cari tipe mesin lu disana,trus liat rekomen tipe2 businya apa aja..lumayan ngebantu lho..

  2. Delapan Satu
  3. #2
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    denso iridium beli di mana & harganya brp sekarang ?

  4. #3
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    gw beli di kumala motor,sawah besar..satunya 70 rb..worthed koq..

  5. #4
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    ada yg punya pngalaman ama beru ultra gak?

  6. #5
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    Busi sebenernya ngaruhnya ga banyak2 klo ga ganti koil dll,,

    Vote for Autolite XP 3910 ah

  7. #6
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    Emang kalo mesin standar ganti busi efek ya?

  8. #7
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    ya nggak lah. kebutuhan busi tergantung ama karakter mobil. ada busi yang memiliki resistan di dalamnya.
    memang jenis beginian cocok buat mobil injeksi,. buat karburator justru jadi penghambat.

    FUNGSI AWAL BUSI: Busi mempunyai 2 fungsi utama :

    • Membakar campuran udara dan bensin
    • Mentransfer panas dari hasil pembakaran sebelum dan sesudah

    Busi mengalirkan energy listrik dan mengubah bahan bakar menjadi energy. Asupan sumber listrik harus cukup dari sistem pengapian untuk memercikan listrik antara gap busi (baca:katoda+anoda). Kerja tersebut disebut “Kinerja Pengapian Mesin”
    Temperatur ujung busi harus terjaga pada suhu serendah mungkin untuk mencegah “Pre-ignition”(baca:ngelitik) tapi setinggi mungkin untuk mencegah “Fouling”(baca:miss ignite) . kerja tersebut disebut “Kinerja Suhu Mesin”, dan ditentukan oleh panas kisaran tertentu.
    Perlu di ingat busi tidak menciptakan panas, busi hanya membuang panas. Busi berkerja sebagai penukar panas dengan membuang panas berlebih keluar dari ruang bakar dan mentransfer panas energy ke sistem pendingin mesin. Kisaran panas dapat diukur melalui kemampuan busi untuk membuang panas
    Tingkat kemampuan busi mentransfer panas dapat dilihat melalui:
    • Panjang insulator busi
    • Volume gas sekitar insulator
    • Bahan elektroda (baca tip busi “eg iridium,platinum,chopper,ect”) dan insulator porselen (baca:kualitas bahan keramik)

    Kisaran panas busi tidak berkaitan dengan aliran tegangan listrik dari coil menuju busi. Padalah, kisaran panas diukur melalui kemampuan busi untuk membuang panas berlebih dari ruang bakar. Tingkat kisaran panas dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor;
    - panjang insulator porselen dan kemampuannya untuk menyerap dan mentransfer panas ruang bakar - bahan insulator porselen dan bahan elektroda “eg.iridium,platinum,chopper,ect”

    Dibawah ini adalah daftar factor external yang mempengaruhi kisaran suhu busi. Indikasi atau kondisi ini mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kisaran suhu busi, dan busi tidak dapat menciptakan kondisi ini tapi harus mampu berkerja pada kondisi tersebut…. Jika tidak, kegagalan performa optimal busi terjadi dan dapat merusak mesin.

    Campuran udara/bensin berpengaruh serius terhadap performa mesin dan kisaran suhu optimal busi.
    •Campuran udara/bensin yang banyak (baca: rich mixture) membuat suhu di
    ujung busi turun dan menurunkan kondisi optimal mesin
    •Campuran udara/bensin yang sedikit (baca: lean mixture) membuat suhu di
    ujung busi tinggi, mengakibatkan Pre-ignition / detonasi lebih-lebih rusaknya
    busi dan mesin
    •Sangat penting untuk membaca anomaly busi pada saat tuning mesin untuk
    mendapatkan hasil campuran udara/bensin yang optimal

    Rasio kompresi tinggi / forced induction juga membuat kisaran suhu busi dan temperatur ruang bakar menjadi naik
    •Kompresi tinggi dapat diperoleh dengan metode sebagai berikut:
    a)mengurangi volume ruang bakar (e.g.: piston jenong, kubah silinder head
    lebih kecil, slip head, dll)
    b)menambahkan forced induction (e.g.: NOS, Turbocharger, Supercharger)
    c)penggantian noken as (baca: camshaft)
    •Saat kompresi menjadi tinggi , busi dingin, bensin octane tinggi, dan
    perhatian khusus diberikan kepada timing pengapian dan campuran
    udara/bensin . gagalnya standarisasi busi dingin akan menyebabkan
    kerusakan pada busi dan mesin

    Memajukan timing pengapian
    •Dengan mempercepat timing pengapian tiap 10 derajat dapat meningkatkan
    suhu kisaran pada busi 70 sampai 100 derajat celcius

    Perputaran mesin dan Beban
    •Peningkatan kisaran suhu ujung busi dapat terjadi sesuai dengan perputaran mesin dan beban berat. Saat berpergian dengan putaran mesin tinggi atau membawa beban berat, standarisasi busi dingin sangat disarankan
    Suhu temperatur sekeliling
    • Saat temperatur turun, kepadatan air di udara meninggi merubah rasio bensin membuat campuran menjadi sedikit (baca: lean mixture)
    hal ini menyebabkan peningkatan suhu mesin dan suhu kisaran ujung busi. Jadi aliran bensin harus diperbanyak.
    • Saat temperatur naik, kepadatan air di udara menurun sejalan dengan kepadatan di intake, oleh karena itu aliran bensin harus diperkecil
    Kelembaban
    • Saat kelembaban meningkat, volume udara intake menurun, menyebabkan turunnya kompresi pembakaran, turunnya suhu kisaran ujung busi membuat tenaga berkurang
    • Campuran udara/bensin sebaiknya diset sedikit, tergantung keadaan udara sekitar.


    Barometric pressure/ Ketinggian
    •Dapat juga mempengaruhi suhu kisaran ujung busi
    •Semakin tinggi geografis, semakin rendah kompresi mesin. Saat temperatur
    silinder turun begitu juga temperatur pada suhu kisaran ujung busi
    •Banyak mekanik mencoba “mengejar” (baca: mengakali) tuning dengan
    mengganti busi dengan busi panas
    •Jawabannya adalah dengan menyetel campuran udara/bensin dengan menghambat aliran udara menuju ke mesin

    Tipe pembakaran yang tidak normal
    Pre-ignition , adalah penyalaan campuran udara/bensin sebelum titik koordinat toleransi penyalaan
    •Disebabkan oleh adanya titik panas pada ruang bakar… juga disebabkan (atau ditriger) terlalu majunya timing pengapian, busi terlalu panas, bensin octane rendah, campuran udara/bensin sedikit, kompresi terlalu tinggi atau gagalnya sistem pendinginan mesin dengan menaikkan octane, memasang busi dingin, perbanyak campuran udara/bensin dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut
    •Anda juga dapat memundurkan timing pengapian dan mengecek sistem pendinginan mesin
    •Pre-ignition akan mengarah pada detonasi; pre-ignition dan detonasi adalah dua kejadian berbeda

    Detonasi , lebih banyak disebabkan oleh titik panas di ruang bakar. titik panas akan menyebabkan campuran udara/besin menyala sebelum waktunya. Pada saat piston bergerak keatas digerakkan oleh stang piston (baca: connecting rod), ledakan campuran udara/bensin akan memaksa piston turun kebawah. Jika piston tidak bisa naik keatas ( karena ada tekanan balik penyalaan udara/bensin premature) dan tidak bisa turun (karena ada putaran stang piston keatas), piston akan bergerak kekiri dan kekanan (baca : from side to side). Alhasil ketukan besi keras di dalam mesin terdengar. Inilah detonasi.
    •Musuh utama busi selain Fouling
    •Dapat merusak insulator dan elektroda
    •Pre-igniton akan mengarah menuju detonasi
    •Kisaran suhu ujung busi akan mencapai lebih dari 3,000 farenheit saat proses pembakaran terjadi di mobil balap
    •Bagian mesin mendapat kerusakan terparah saat “detonasi” dari suhu yang terlalu panas
    •Busi dapat rusak baik oleh terlalu tinggi atau rendahnya temperature dan detonasi
    Misfire , busi dapat dikatakan mis fire (baca: tidak memercik) apabila tegangan coil tidak terkirim sempurna untuk membakar campuran udara/bensin di ruang bakar pada saat yang tepat titik mati atas/ TMA (baca: top dead center)
    •Busi dapat mengirim percikan lemah (atau tidak sama sekali) yang disebabkan oleh banyak hal…. Coil lemah, kompresi terlalu tinggi dengan setelan gap yang salah, busi basah atau terlalu kering, timing pengapian yang tidak sesuai, dll
    •Sedikit misfire dapat menyebabkan hilangnya tenaga mesin ( penyalaan campuran udara/bensin menghasilkan tenaga)
    •Mesin menjadi boros, kurang tenaga, lebih-lebih merusak mesin


    Fouling , terjadi apabila kisaran suhu ujung busi tidak mampu membakar carbon deposit, oli didalam ruang bakar
    •Busi basah harus segera diganti
    •Busi kering kadang-kadang masih bisa digunakan selama dibersihkan dan kondisi mesin bersuhu normal
    •Sebelum mengganti busi berindikasi “Fouled” pastikan untuk memperbaikin sumber penyebabnya


    gambar 1
    Panjang insulator adalah jarak dari ujung elektroda (baca: firing tip) ke dasar insulator. Karena ujung elektroda adalah bagian terpanas busi biasanya disinilah tempat masalah terjadinya (Pre-Ignition) & (Fouling). Dimanapun busi digunakan baik di kapal,mobil,bajak tanah, dll, ujung busi harus konstan berada pada suhu antara 500C – 850C. Jika ujung busi bertemperatur kurang dari 500C, insulator yang mengelilingi elektroda dimungkinkan tidak cukup panas untuk membakar carbon dan deposit dalam ruang bakar. Penumpukan deposit dapat membuat (Fouling) yang nantinya berakibat pada (Miss Fire). Jika ujung busi lebih panas dari 850C maka busi akan overheated yang berakibat rusaknya insulator lebih-lebih melelehkan elektroda. Hal tersebut akan mengakibatkan (Pre-ignition / Detonasi) dan merusakkan mesin. Tiap busi dengan kode identik tertentu mempunyai kisaran toleransi buang panas antara 70C hingga 100C di dalam ruang bakar. Perubahan gap busi akan menaikkan atau menurunkan suhu antara 10C hingga 20C

    Gambar 2
    Kondisi ujung busi tergantung pada terperatur pada ujung busi. Ada tiga macam kriteria diagnostic dasar untuk busi : baik, terlalu dingin, terlalu panas. Batas antara suhu yang optimal dimana kondisi tersebut mempunyai karakteristik “cleansing”. Temperatur pada titik tersebut akan membakar tumpukan carbon dan deposit.

    Perlu di ingat bahwa panjang insulator akan menentukan factor kisaran panas busi, semakin panjang insulator semakin banyak panas yang diserap dan lebih lagi panas tersebut akan menjalar melalui “water jacket” dan silinder head. Ini berarti busi tersebut mempunyai kisaran panas yang tinggi dan dikatakan sebagai busi panas. Busi panas menyimpan panas yang tinggi bekerja membakar oli dan carbon deposit di dalam ruang bakar dan tidak berhubungan dengan kualitas percikan atau percepatan percikan.
    Sebaliknya busi dingin mempunyai insulator pendek dan menyerap sedikit panas dari ruang bakar. Panas tersebut menjalar jarak pendek, dan membuat kinerja busi pada suhu rendah. Kisaran suhu rendah sangat dibutuhkan jika mesin mengalami modifikasi untuk performance, menderek beban berat, atau putaran mesin tinggi pada waktu yang lama. Busi dingi membuang panas dengan cepat, mengurangi potensi (Pre-ignition / detonasi). tidak terpenuhinya standar busi dingin pada mesin modifikasi untuk performance akan berakibat gagalnya fungsi busi dan kerusakan pada mesin.


    3. Gapping

    Since the gap size has a direct affect on the spark plug's tip temperature
    and on the voltage necessary to ionize (light) the air/fuel mixture, careful attention is required. While it is a popular misconception that plugs are pre-gapped from the factory, the fact remains that the gap must be adjusted for the vehicle that the spark plug is intended for. Those with modified engines must remember that a modified engine with higher compression or forced induction will typically require a smaller gap settings (to ensure ignitability
    in these denser air/fuel mixtures). As a rule, the more power you are making, the smaller the gap you will need.

    A spark plug's voltage requirement is directly proportionate to the gap size. The larger the gap, the more voltage is needed to bridge the gap. Most experienced tuners know that opening gaps up to present a larger spark to the air/fuel mixture maximizes burn efficiency. It is for this reason that most racers add high power ignition systems. The added power allows them to open the gap yet still provide a strong spark.

    With this mind, many think the larger the gap the better. In fact, some aftermarket ignition systems boast that their systems can tolerate gaps that are extreme. Be wary of such claims. In most cases, the largest gap you can run may still be smaller than you think.

    The insulator nose length is the distance from the firing tip of the insulator to the point where insulator meets the metal shell. Since the insulator tip is the hottest part of the spark plug, the tip temperature is a primary factor in pre-ignition and fouling. Whether the spark plugs are fitted in a lawnmower, boat, or a race car, the spark plug tip temperature must remain between 500C-850C. If the tip temperature is lower than 500C, the insulator area surrounding the center electrode will not be hot enough to burn off carbon and combustion chamber deposits. These accumulated deposits can result in spark plug fouling leading to misfire. If the tip temperature is higher than 850C the spark plug will overheat which may cause the ceramic around the center electrode to blister and the electrodes to melt. This may lead to pre-ignition/detonation and expensive engine damage. In identical spark plug types, the difference from one heat range to the next is the ability to remove approximately 70C to 100C from the combustion chamber. A projected style spark plug firing tip temperature is increased by 10C to 20C.


    OPENING THE SPARK PLUG GAP:

    For as long as engine builders and racers have been tuning engines there has been talk of enlarged or modified spark plug gaps. The theory is that by opening the gap that you increase the spark kernel, thus improving flame propagation (complete burn across the entire area of the piston), and increasing performance output of the engine. Well, I can say that it does work, but I can also say that it does not work. The explanation for this is that on some applications you will see gains, on others you won't. In some cases you may actually lose performance by opening the plug gap.

    On weaker, or stock ignitions, opening the gap puts added strain on the other ignition components in the system. On race ignition systems you are already taking advantage of the output of the ignition box, extended spark duration, and more efficient energy transfer. The only honest way to discuss modifying the plug gap is to experiment on your individual application. You'll either see a benefit, or you won't. Spark plugs gaps are a trial and error type of science when you deviate from the manufacturer recommended settings. If you increase the gap at 0.001" - 0.002" steps and you get to a point where you lose power you will need to close the gap up 0.002"-0.003" to be at the optimum gap. This is what you need to think about:

    * The ignition coil may not have enough stored energy to fire, or in the least case, not enough energy by the time it gets to the plug to be able to jump the gap.
    * Plug wire leads will break down at a faster rate due to the added resistance as the spark tries to reach ground.
    * Rotor, distributor cap, points/condenser (if using an antiquated breaker point distributor), and the center carbon in the distributor cap will show early failures.
    * The chance of spark scatter in the distributor cap increases.

    All of this occurs because the greater the gap, the higher the voltage requirement necessary to get through the components to jump the gap. The harder these components have to work, the shorter their life span. As a side note, on aftermarket, and high performance rotors the tip is a bit longer to control spark scatter on higher output ignitions.

    INFLUENCES ON SPARK PLUG TEMPERATURE AND PERFORMANCE:
    Below is a list of possible external influences on a spark plug's operating temperatures. The following symptoms or conditions may have an affect on the actual temperature of the spark plug. The spark plug cannot create these conditions, but it must be able to deal with all the levels of heat, otherwise performance will suffer and engine damage can occur:

    1) Air/Fuel Mixtures seriously affect engine performance and spark plug temperatures.

    * Rich air/fuel mixtures cause the tip temperatures to drop, causing fouling and poor drivability
    * Lean air/fuel mixtures cause plug tip and cylinder temperatures to increase, resulting in pre-ignition, detonation, and increase the possibility of spark plug and internal engine damage.
    * It is important to read spark plugs many times during the tuning process to achieve the optimum air/fuel mixture.
    * Computer-controlled engine applications do a pretty good job of maintaining the optimum air/fuel mixture by using the various sensors that report back to the ECM, but even during periodic maintenance the spark plugs can offer insight as to how the engine is performing.

    2) Higher Compression Ratios, Forced Induction, and Nitrous Oxide will elevate spark plug tip and in-cylinder temperatures.

    * Compression pressure, defined as cylinder pressure (not to be confused with static compression ratio, though it is also part of this calculation), can be increased be performing any of the following modifications.

    * Reducing combustion chamber volume (higher compression domed pistons, smaller chamber cylinder heads, milling the heads, lowering the block deck height, thinner cylinder head gaskets), which are all examples of changing the static compression ratio.
    * Adding a forced induction system to the engine (supercharger, turbocharger, nitrous)
    * Camshaft change, where the changes in new cam timing affect the cylinder pressure in the engine.

    * As compression pressure (cylinder pressure) increases, a colder heat range spark plug is required, as well as higher octane fuel and paying careful attention to ignition timing and air/fuel ratios.

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    3) Advanced Ignition Timing, or moving the point of ignition farther ahead of where the piston reaches TDC (top dead center).

    * By advancing the timing 10 you can easily add 70c to 100c (158f to 212f) to the spark plug temperature.

    4) Engine Speed and Load changes will increase the firing end temperatures of the spark plug.

    * When a vehicle is cruising down the highway at a steady rate of speed the spark plug firing end temperatures will be fairly constant, affected by the load on the engine (weight of vehicle, aerodynamics, rolling resistance, type of road you are on, etc.). Changes in engine load will affect the tip temperature of the spark plug.
    * If your vehicle is constantly running at a high RPM, carrying/pushing/pulling heavy loads, climbing mountain roads ... a colder plug may be required. You must read the plugs to see how they are handling this use.
    * The heavier your vehicle, or greater the amount of work the engine sees (racing applications, heavy-loaded construction trucks, vans, RVs & motor homes), the more critical this becomes. Hopefully the engineers that built your vehicle did their homework, and you are using your vehicle within its intended design, that way the specified plug heat ranges are accurate. If you have deviated much from the intended use of your particular vehicle, plug reading becomes more important.

    5) Ambient Air Temperature, defined as the incoming air that enters your engine through the air filter and into the combustion process.

    * As air temperature falls, air density volume increases, resulting in leaner air/fuel mixtures. This creates higher cylinder pressures and temperatures which causes an increase in the spark plug's tip temperature. Fuel delivery should be increased in this scenario.
    * As air temperature increases, air density increases, as does intake volume, and fuel delivery should be decreased.
    * On computer-controlled applications, this is compensated automatically as the sensors report information to the ECM to make adjustments in the fuel curve. But, on carbureted applications you may need to compensate the jetting or available adjustments if you operate the vehicle primarily in constant extreme high or low temperatures.

    6) Humidity, or moisture in the air.

    * As humidity increases, air volume decreases. The result is lower combustion pressures and temperatures, causing a decrease in the spark plug's temperature and a reduction in available power.
    * Along with increases in humidity, the air/fuel mixture should be leaner, but it will also depend on ambient air temperatures. The opposite changes are needed as humidity decreases.

    7) Barometric Pressure and Altitude

    * Affects the spark plug's temperature
    * The higher the altitude, the lower the cylinder pressure becomes. As cylinder temperature decreases, so does the tip temperature.
    * Many tuners will attempt to "chase after" optimum tuning by changing spark plug heat ranges.
    The real answer is to play with the jetting or air/fuel mixtures in an effort to put more air back into the engine.

    Types of Abnormal Combustion
    Pre-ignition

    * Defined as: ignition of the air/fuel mixture before the pre-set ignition timing mark
    * Caused by hot spots in the combustion chamber...can be caused
    (or amplified) by over advanced timing, too hot a spark plug, low octane fuel, lean air/fuel mixture, too high compression, or insufficient engine cooling
    * A change to a higher octane fuel, a colder plug, richer fuel mixture,
    or lower compression may be in order
    * You may also need to retard ignition timing, and check vehicle's cooling system
    * Pre-ignition usually leads to detonation; pre-ignition an detonation are two separate events

    Detonation

    * The spark plug's worst enemy! (Besides fouling)
    * Can break insulators or break off ground electrodes
    * Pre-ignition most often leads to detonation
    * Plug tip temperatures can spike to over 3000F during the combustion process (in a racing engine)
    * Most frequently caused by hot spots in the combustion chamber.
    Hot spots will allow the air/fuel mixture to pre-ignite. As the piston is being forced upward by mechanical action of the connecting rod, the pre-ignited explosion will try to force the piston downward. If the piston can't go up (because of the force of the premature explosion) and it can't go down (because of the upward mo-tion of the connecting rod), the piston will rattle from side to side. The resulting shock wave causes an audible pinging sound. This is detonation.
    * Most of the damage than an engine sustains when "detonating" is from excessive heat
    * The spark plug is damaged by both the elevated temperatures and the accompanying shock wave, or concussion

    Misfires

    * A spark plug is said to have misfired when enough voltage has not been delivered to light off all fuel present in the combustion chamber at the proper moment of the power stroke (a few degrees before top dead center)
    * A spark plug can deliver a weak spark (or no spark at all) for a variety of reasons...defective coil, too much compression with incorrect
    plug gap, dry fouled or wet fouled spark plugs, insufficient ignition timing, etc.
    * Slight misfires can cause a loss of performance for obvious reasons (if fuel is not lit, no energy is be-ing created)
    * Severe misfires will cause poor fuel economy, poor driveability, and can lead to engine damage

    Fouling

    * Will occur when spark plug tip temperature is insufficient to burn off carbon, fuel, oil or other deposits
    * Will cause spark to leach to metal shell...no spark across plug gap will cause a misfire
    * Wet-fouled spark plugs must be changed...spark plugs will not fire
    * Dry-fouled spark plugs can sometimes be cleaned by bringing engine up to operating temperature
    * Before changing fouled spark plugs, be sure to eliminate root
    cause of fouling


    gue kebetulan punya nih buku tentang busi. dari denso langsung.
    busi intinya sama, yang penting ukuran drat dan panjang drat busi.

    kalau kuncinya untuk membuka dan menutup terserah sobat.

    kode busi terdiri dari
    contoh W16EX R-U11 dari denso

    W= merupakan ukuran diameter ulir dan Hex (ada tabelnya)
    16=tingkat panas busi. makin kecil angkanya, proses pelepasan panas kian sulit, makin tinggi angkanya makin mudah melepas panas. jadi busi W16 akan lebih panas dari W20 atau W24
    E=panjang ulir (ada tabelnya)
    X=Rancangan khusus (ada tabelnya)
    R=konstruksi dalam kode R menandakan resistan jika gak ada kode R berarti tanpa resistan. jadi kalau misalnya busi ada kode R, jika suplai dari koil 10 ribu volt yang nyampe busi cuma 8 ribu, tergantung satuan ohm pada resistan
    U=bentuk gap khusus. (ada kode lain misalnya, GL, L, S, U, US, V, Z, C, P) masing-masing punya bentuk yang berlainan.
    11 (jika ada)= merupakan gap optimal yang bisa digunakan pada busi. angka makin besar gap busi pun gede maksimum adalah 2 mm, makin kecil (khusus denso cuma 9) artinya gap busi yang dianjurkan adalah 9. untuk gap juga berhubungan dengan koil yang digunakan makin gede suplai dari koil, gap yang digunakan lebih besar dari ukuran standarnya.


    semoga bisa buat rujukan

  9. #8
    Kopral Satu
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    Bro kalau mobil uda di pnp apa perlu pake busi iridium???

  10. #9
    Kapten
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    injeksi atau bukan?

    kalau injeksi disarankan pake busi dengan resistan (ada kode R pada busi). sedangkan kalau karbu lebih baik tanpa R.

    untuk mobil injeksi bisa juga dicoba dengan busi tanpa R.

  11. #10
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    0
    Online
    1 Day 1 Hr 20 Mins 34 Secs
    ckckck..si jendral kasih kuliah nih

    absen ah..zzz...zzz...

 

 
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